Mark Bickhard

My work is primarily in formal theoretical psychology, with a focus on the formal modeling of cognitive processes. I am interested in the nature of persons - both in the sense of the modeling of biological persons and the emergence of social persons, and in the sense of the design of artificial persons.

Current Book Project
The Whole Person - Toward a Naturalism of Persons, Contributions to an Ontological Psychology

Selected Publications
Bickhard, M. H. (2009). Interactivism: A Manifesto. New Ideas in Psychology 27, 85–95.

Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The Biological Foundations of Cognitive Science. New Ideas in Psychology 27, 75–84.

Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The interactivist model. Synthese 166(3), 547-591.

Bickhard, M. H. (2009). Interactivism. In J. Symons, P. Calvo (Eds.) The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. (346-359). London: Routledge.

Bickhard, M. H. (2008). Are You Social? The Ontological and Developmental Emergence of the Person.  In U. Mueller, J. I. M. Carpendale, N. Budwig, B. Sokol (Eds.) Social Life and Social Knowledge. (17-42).  New York: Taylor & Francis.

Bickhard, M. H. (2008). Issues in Process Metaphysics. Ecological Psychology, 20(3), 252-256.

Bickhard, M. H. (2008). Social Ontology as Convention. Topoi, 27(1-2), 139-149.

Bickhard, M. H. (2007). Language as an Interaction System. New Ideas in Psychology, 25 (2), 171-187.

Christopher, J. C., Bickhard, M. H. (2007). Culture, Self and Identity: Interactivist Contributions to a Metatheory for Cultural Psychology. Culture & Psychology, 13(3), 259-295.

Bickhard, M. H. (2006). Developmental Normativity and Normative Development. In L. Smith, J. Voneche (Eds.) Norms in Human Development. (57-76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bickhard, M. H. (2005). Consciousness and Reflective Consciousness. Philosophical Psychology, 18(2), 205-218.

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). The Social Ontology of Persons. In J. I. M. Carpendale, U. Muller (Eds.) Social Interaction and the Development of Knowledge. (111-132). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). Process and Emergence: Normative Function and Representation. Axiomathes - An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems, 14, 135- 169. Also in: Seibt, J. (2003). Process Theories: Crossdisciplinary Studies Dynamic categories. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Bickhard, M. H., Campbell, D. T. (2003). Variations in Variation and Selection: The Ubiquity of the Variation-and-Selective Retention Ratchet in Emergent Organizational Complexity. Foundations of Science, 8(3), 215-282.

Bickhard, M. H. (2003). Some notes on internal and external relations and representation. Consciousness & Emotion, 4(1), 101-110.

Bickhard, M. H. (2002). Critical Principles: On the Negative Side of Rationality. New Ideas in Psychology, 20, 1-34.

Christensen, W. D., Bickhard, M. H. (2002). The Process Dynamics of Normative Function. Monist, 85(1), 3-28. 

Bickhard, M. H. (2001). Why Children Don't Have to Solve the Frame Problems: Cognitive Representations are not Encodings. Developmental Review, 21, 224-262.

Christopher, J. C., Bickhard, M. H., Lambeth, G. S. (2001). Otto Kernberg's Object Relations Theory: A Metapsychological Critique. Theory and Psychology, 11(5), 687- 711.

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). Motivation and Emotion: An Interactive Process Model. In R. D. Ellis, N. Newton (Eds.)  The Caldron of Consciousness. (161-178). J. Benjamins.

Levine, A., Bickhard, M. H. (1999). Concepts: Where Fodor Went Wrong. Philosophical Psychology, 12(1), 5-23. 

Bickhard, M. H. (1999). Interaction and Representation. Theory & Psychology, 9(4), 435-458.

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). Robots and Representations. In R. Pfeifer, B. Blumberg, J.A. Meyer, S. W. Wilson (Eds.) From Animals to Animats 5. (58-63). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Zurich, Switzerland, August 17 - 21, 1998. MIT.

Bickhard, M. H. (1997). Cognitive Representation in the Brain. In R. Dulbecco (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Human Biology. 2nd Ed. (865-876). San Diego: Academic Press.

Bickhard, M. H. (1995). Intrinsic Constraints on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics.  Journal of Pragmatics, 23, 541-554.

Bickhard, M. H., Terveen, L. (1995). Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science: Impasse and Solution. Elsevier Scientific.

Lehigh University Psychology - Mark
Henry R. Luce Professor in Cognitive Robotics and the Philosophy of Knowledge
312 Chandler-Ullmann Hall
University of Chicago Ph.D. 1973 Human Development
University of Chicago M.S. 1970 Statistics
University of Chicago B.S. 1966 Mathematics

Teaching Interests: 

Theoretical psychology
Cognitive science
Developmental psychology
Personality and psychopathology
Evolutionary biology
Cognition and the central nervous system
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of language